Quotes on The Importance of Homer

I have been reading the two great works of Homer, The Iliad and The Odyssey, and have come to see just how fantastic Homer is as a writer but also how important he is to Western Civilization. Others agree and below are some collected quotes from brilliant thinkers, both past and present on the importance and influence of Homer throughout the ages:

“Homer is significant because he started The Great Conversation, gave birth to The West, inspired and taught the Greeks and therefore us, wrote virtually perfect poetry, thought about every great idea deeply, embodied them in story and is the best philosopher who ever lived.” —Andrew Kern

    “Reading Homer’s Poems is one of the purest, most inexhaustible pleasures life has to offer-a secret somewhat too well kept in our time”—Eva Brann

    “He (Homer) deserves to be taken up as an instructor in the management and culture of human affairs, and that a man ought to regulate the whole of his life by following this poet.”–Plato’s Republic

      Homer’s Iliad and The Odyssey are “Constructed as well as possible, they come as close as possible for the ideal of a poem”—Aristotle

      “Behold the One whose right hand wields the sword, behold the One who comes before other poets as their Lord, that is Homer, the Sovereign, that is the Bard Supreme, that is Homer.”—Dante

        “It was against the order of nature that he created the most excellent production that can be. For things at birth are ordinary imperfect; they gain size and strength as they grow. He made the infancy of poetry and of several sciences mature, perfect and accomplished. For this reason he may be called the first and last of poets.”—Montaigne

        The Fundamental Laws of Logic

        When I tell people that I teach logic at a classical school, I often get a look and a recurrent phrase that goes something like “I don’t think I could ever learn that because that sounds out of my league!” While some subjects are harder than others to understand, logic has the ability to be easy to learn because we all participate in some form of logical or illogical thought patterns everyday. Often, it may seem daunting because logic uses advanced vocabulary, but once you learn the language, you realize that logic is actually quite easy to pick up. Such is with the fundamental laws of logic; these laws sound wording, but in fact once studied, makes perfect sense. The fundamental laws of logic and thought are:
        1. The Law of Exclusion. This Law basically states that a statement/proposition is either true or false, there is no middle option. the statement “God is real” is either true or false, God can’t be both or some sort of Pandora’s box of being both at the same time; either God is real or he isn’t, either Christianity is true or it’s false.
        2. The Law of Identity. This laws states that if a statement/proposition is true, than it’s true! I know it’s not rocket science, but living in our postmodern relativistic culture, we often here statements such as “Well, the Christian Religion may be true for you, but my truth is something else. Everyone has their own truth and no one can be wrong.” This is logically impossible, either the Christian religion is the true religion or it’s a false one, and the same goes with Postmodernism, Atheism or any form of relativism that would suggest otherwise.
        3. The Law of Contradiction. This Law of thought states that a statement/proposition can’t be both true and false at the same time. I can not both be married and a bachelor, I can only be one or the other. If you were to look outside right now and it was nighttime, you can’t say that it is and isn’t nighttime, that would be crazy. Often opponents of Christianity say that the doctrine of the Trinity is guilty of committing the law of contradiction by stating that the Trinity displays itself as saying that He is one God, yet three Gods. But this is a straw man fallacy, for The Trinity is not “one God, yet three Gods, but is properly defined as One Essence, Three Persons, which is different than saying that God is one person, three persons or one essence, three essences, but is simply One Essence, Three persons. This may be hard to understand, but that doesn’t make it a contradiction, just simply mysterious.
        But how can we know these laws are true? Apologist and Professor J.P. Moreland answers this brilliantly by writing,
        “These fundamental laws are true principles governing reality and thought and are assumed by Scripture. Some claim they are arbitrary Western constructions, but this is false. The basic laws of logic govern all reality and thought and are known to be true for at least two reasons: (1) They are intuitively obvious and self-evident. Once one understands a basic law of logic (see below), one can see that it is true. (2) Those who deny them use these principles in their denial, demonstrating that those laws are unavoidable and that it is self-refuting to deny them.

        Building An Audio Library

        Listening to audio books has recently become the newest way I am able to “read” as many books as I can, either for my graduate degree or for my job. It is amazing how much time is wasted just sitting in the car driving, so either when I am driving to work, which is thirty minutes both ways, or I am just going for a Sunday drive to get my little girls to nap, I have found these audio tools to be the best way to build an audio library.

        1. Christian Audio is a great resource, which offers one audio book for free every month on top of great sale selections. My personal favorite sale is the twice yearly sale they do where almost their entire audio catalog is on sale for four to eight dollars an audio book, which is deeply discounted!
        2. Audible has a great selection of audio books and its very user friendly, as their app gives you the ability to speed up the book or slow down and it is very much aesthetically pleasing. Sign up for a free trial and get two free audio books, and even if you cancel the membership, you get to keep the audio books.
        3. Lit2Go is a selection of audio books that are of all the greatest classics such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Crime and Punishment, The Iliad, A Tale of Two Cities and many other classics, ALL FOR FREE! You can download them for easier access through iTunes University.
        4. ReformedAudio has some great Reformed Classics as well ready to download all for free. Machen, Warfield and Ryle are all great suggestions to begin with this site.
        5. LibriVox is a volunteer based site that has volunteers read and record public domain books for your listening pleasure. Harder to use site, but they seem to have some gems, especially classics by Puritans like Richard Sibbes and Thomas Watson that look like great ones to try out.

        How To Read The Classics

        There are a handful of books about reading books, such as Mortimer Adler’s How To Read A Book, Harold Bloom’s How To Read And Why, and probably my favorite in the genre The Pleasures of Reading in An Age of Distraction by Alan Jacobs, that have really helped readers become better readers. But how should we read classics? Let me offer a few helpful suggestions:

        Read with Patience

        Classics are not to be skimmed or speed read through. These books are life changing and in order for them to do work on our souls, it takes time, a long time in fact. Growth takes time. The power behind the ideas and stories contained in these books need to be chewed on, soaked in and let loose so that we may challenge them or accept them and then apply it. But don’t give up on a book, keep reading, plugging away and maybe even rereading it. As author and writer Italo Calvino once wrote, “Every rereading of a classic is as much a voyage of discovery as the first reading…every reading of a classic is in fact a rereading.” 

        Read with Good Friends

        I owe a lot of my thoughts and ideas to the minds of the group known as The Inklings, occupied by the likes of C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and Charles Williams. They started this group to have one purpose: to read the Icelandic legends and stories together. Reading the classics with friends enriches the story because they often see things different than you. That is probably one of my favorite parts about studying at a school like St. John’s College is being able to read books and hear the different ideas, stories and world views that help me see different ways of looking at the text and making connections. Reading with friends is always an adventure in itself when reading the classics. 

        Read with Food and Drink

        C.S. Lewis once wrote, “Eating and reading are two pleasures that combine admirably.” Now you won’t find this suggestion in many reading manuals, but I honestly believe there is no better way to enjoy a book than alongside some great food and drink. A nice lager or stout while reading Lord of The Rings, or chocolate deserts with The Chronicles of Narnia(Maybe even some Turkish delights!) makes the reading experience so much more enjoyable. 

        Maybe that can be an adventure in itself, deciding which food to eat that thematically fits with the classic your reading! Which of course, sounds like the best (and most hobbit-like) kind of adventure. 

        How To Study The Classics

        Classics are a challenge to read. I once had a student admit that he had read one single page for an hour trying to understand what was going on in Cervantes Don Quixote and finally went to google to help him figure it out.  With the obstacles that classical books present us, we need resources that will help us in our quest of not only understanding the book, but coming to enjoy it more by spending time studying it for all its wisdom and worth. Below are a list of resources that should be able to help readers along the way. 

        Study Guides
        Study guides are great little tools for helping readers get a grip on a text. Often they are concise, easy to read and can summarize a textual problem in a way that helps the reader be able to go back and read a passage again with a sort of confidence of knowing what is actually happening

        1. Crossway’s Christian Guides to the classics are limited but they have a great deal of information and wisdom from a Christian worldview provided by a world class professor in Leland Ryken at an affordable cost.

        2. Harold Bloom’s Modern Critical Interpretations can be a bit pricey and offer some sketchy modernized views on classic works, but it gets the job done and can offer great insight if read with a critical mind. These books are expensive to buy so definitely check your library for copies first. 

        3. Sparknotes is like a teacher’s worst enemy, right next to Wikipedia, but both are so valuable (and free!) Tread wisely as sometimes it may seem like a good idea to just read the spark notes instead of the book, but it just isn’t the same as reading the actual book and won’t stick to your soul like a classic work.

        Textbooks 

        Textbooks on classics can really help give a broad overview on how they have influenced throughout the ages and how they interact with other classics in the great conversation. Don’t feel the obligation to read these word for word but use them as tools to give you a deeper picture.

        1. The Great Books Reader

        2. The Book of Great Books

        3. The Western Canon

        4. The Great Tradition

        5. The Great Books: A Journey

        Courses

        One of the things I love most about living in our times is our access to quality education at little to no cost if you are trying to learn without getting a degree. iTunes University has redeemed my morning commute with all the awesome courses they offer from schools like Yale, Westminster and Cambridge for free. Open Culture has a variety of lists such as courses on Literature, History and Philosophy that will get you started! Also, make sure to check out Covenant Seminary, Reformed Theological Seminary or Westminster for solid theology courses. Carl Trueman on The Reformation, Ligon Duncan on Covenant Theology and John Frame on Philosophy have been awesome so if you need recommendations or a place to start, start with those. Enjoy!

        Why We Don’t Read Classics

        Mark Twain, author of such great works such as Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, once remarked, “A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read.” This is a sentiment felt by many. We all want to say we have read the great works of history such as Plato and Shakespeare, but to actually do it seems rare. There is even a whole industry of books dedicated to giving you short summaries and the main talking points just so you can bluff your way through conversations that deal with the classics. Why is it we don’t read the classics?

        • The Classics are Daunting– Just one page in by a 21st century reader into the works of Shakespeare or Milton will make even the best readers pause and wonder whether or not they just want to read Harry Potter again. That’s how I felt the first time I picked up Aristotle’s Metaphysics and tried to read the man who influenced most of Medieval Times. Yet, even with a commentary, I threw the book down because it was just too much.   Sometimes, classics can be just scary. Ever read Dante’s Inferno? That is one book that will make you want to know for sure there is salvation! Or it could possibly change your life so radically that it saves it, as author Rod Dreher writes in his book, How Dante Can Save Your Life. 
        • The Classics require Work– One of the pitfalls of being a blogger and reading a huge amount of blog articles is that the writing doesn’t require much time and effort to read. Not so with The Classics. During my philosophy segment at St. John’s College, I read some of the most well-known philosophy texts in western culture and a huge portion of them were under a hundred pages. However, jam-packed in those hundred pages were ideas and worldviews that couldn’t be challenged or solved in one sitting. Taking on Hume’s materialistic empiricism in An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding or Plato’s understanding of Virtues in Meno requires investigative energies to properly understand and potentially dismantle in light of a christian worldview displayed in The Scriptures. Classics require our full attention, because if we miss one portion, it will often lead us down the wrong train of thought and be twice as hard to recover to the process of comprehending the text once again.
        • The Classics require Time- This is probably the biggest hurdle for the modern American reader. Our obligations and responsibilities pull us in so many different directions requiring so much of us that by the time we get home we just want to watch Netflix and pass out. However we need to be able to better prioritize our lives. As author and blogger Tony Reinke recently wrote, “The time needed to read books is there for all of us. Some are mentally unable to read. Most non-readers simply choose other priorities.” We especially need to make time for the classics, because they are books that you can not simply speed read through. In fact what often happens is the book forces you to put it down and answer for yourself what it is asking. When Plato ask what are virtues or Kierkegaard describes faith, you can’t just simply keep reading, you must ask and prod and figure out what you believe, if what they are saying is true and now how to live in light of it. Classics therefore must be a priority, for they will take your time, but your life will be full.

        Despite the challenges of reading the classics, the rewards are so much greater. Once you begin, you know that with preparation, planning and hard work, reading the classics will help you grow and challenge you to become something new.

        Why Read The Classics

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        The Great Books of Western Civilization

        Homer’s Odyssey. Plato’s Republic. Shakespeare’s Macbeth.

        Works that have been heralded as some of the finest literary achievements in Western Civilization for hundreds of years. Books that have changed landscapes, thoughts and worldviews; all with the power of words. Yet these books and those books that are grouped with them, called The Classics, are often neglected by readers for various reasons. Whatever the reason is, let me persuade you with why you should read the classics for all that they are worth.

        • Classics are Powerful– I remember the first time I read a classics novel back in the early days of High School. Growing up, I only read comic books and when we read books in school, I skimmed the Sparknotes. This was different though-this was George Orwell’s 1984. It was the first time I couldn’t put a book down because it was so good, and it was a different scary world that can often feel like our own. Since then I’ve read countless classics, because despite the hard work that goes into reading a classic they have a power to suck you in their world like no other type of book. Feeling the intensity of power and insanity of corruption in Macbeth or the longing for home and family found in The Odyssey are feelings that you will find elsewhere, but never to the level you feel in classic works. These works are breathtaking.
        • Classics are Entertaining– You often hear the cliché “The book was so much better than the movie” and even though I often hate the usage of clichés, I can’t help but think how true this is when it comes to classics. Classic Books are so much more fun to read than to watch, and there are many reasons for that, but I think the main reason is because things get lost in translation from book to movie that can’t be replaced or replicated. The stories found in classic literature are just so darn good. Think of C.S. Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia series; the pure entertainment of reading and experiencing Aslan for the first time brings a sort of sensation to the heart that creates in you a desire to see Aslan for yourself and live in the world of Narnia. I found the same desire when reading the works of J.R.R. Tolkien, the pure entertainment of imagining yourself into their world and experiencing the adventures of characters alongside them is much more experiential than the passive forms we partake in modern productions.
        • Classics are Foundational–  You only have a short amount of time on this planet, don’t spend it reading garbage or unoriginal stories. Too often, after reading the classics, I’ll pick up a new book and realize the Author is not doing anything new, in fact Shakespeare, Twain or Huxley did it so much better and in such a way that it should not be copied, because every rendition after is poor. Classic works have laid the foundation for new ideas, new worldviews and new philosophies; Think of how Machiavelli’s The Prince shaped politics or Bacon’s Novum Organum shaped science or Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason changed philosophy, each of these books have revolutionized how countless others came after them in performing in their field. These are the works we all should be reading; interacting with the ideas and stories that have shaped and influenced the world.

        Pick up a Classic, explore a new world, experience a new idea and read.